The Zaria 2016 is the only selfwindig movement of the Penza watch manufactury. It is a mid-size ( 8 3/4 lignes) movement and was launched in the mid 1970ies.
Compared to other russian selfwindig movements, it is pretty rare.Video on YouTube
The construction of this movement is much more complicated than on all compareable movements, regardless of which origin. You will see the details below.
A first speciality of the movement is the diameter of the oscillating weight. It is much larger than the diameter of the movement and thus requires a movement holder ring, which makes the Zaria 2016 effectively larger to a diameter of 10 lignes (22.5mm), which was quite large for womens' watches at this time.
The oscillating weight is axle beared and secured by a screw-locked plate.
The selfwindig mechanism is put as a complete part onto the base movement Zaria 2009.
All gears are beared in jewels. Two click changers and two reduction wheel are used. The last reduction wheel drives the upper ratchet wheel.
The click changer allows a bidirectional winding, on which always one of the wheels runs freely, while the other one either directly drives or changes the rotating direction. The reduction wheel is so always driven in the same direction.
The upper gear of the double ratchet wheel is connected to the selfwindig mechanism. If this mechanism turns, a click inside the double ratchet wheel also drives the lower part, which sits on the mainspring barrel.
If the movement is wound by hand and so only turns the lower ratchet wheel, the upper one is decoupled, so that the selfwinding mechanism is not by execessive wear.
Without the selfwindig plate, which is secured by three screws, you can already see the extensively made base movement, which contains already five gears even on the first layer.
The three leg Glucydur balance is beared in two inhouse shock protection systems (with springs with fantastic flying capabilities) and beats slowly with 18000 A/h.
Of course the hairspring stud is moveable. The effective length of the hairspring is set at the hairspring key, which contains a small scale at is end on the balance cock.
Escapement wheel and fourth wheel are locate below the first bridge, third and second wheel and the center second axle below the second bridge.
It’s a bit odd, that the escapement lever is neither located under a cock nor under a bridge, but under a 360° cage like construction, which probably saves the balance against hard shocks.
Another unusual detail are the both crown wheels. Normal movement only contain one crown wheel, which drives the ratchet wheel.
On the left of the lever bearing (at 3:30), you can see the a ruby bearing with a large hole. It locates the date wheel!
There’s the complete movement works:
From the mainspring barrel, it goes the the first exchange gear (without axle!), then to the decentral second wheel (with cannon pinion), which drives the hands on the dial side, then to the double third wheel, which drives the indirect center second, then to the fourth wheel and finally to the escapement wheel.
Sounds complex - and is complex. Very complex!
The only bearing without jewel is the mainspring barrel bearing.
On the dial side, you see the yoke winding system and the cannon pinion (at position “4:00”), which drives minute and hour hands simultaneously by the help of an exchange wheel (at position “5:00”, but not to be seen yet).
This indirect technics was especially used by the ETA since the 1950ies and is still state of the art, since it allows especially flat movements.
The hour wheel drives the (only!) on the movement side beared date wheel. It’s hard to imagine, why such a wheel, which turns only one revolution in 24 hours, even needs a jewel bearing.
Of course, both springs of the date mechanism have excellent flying capabilities, too. But their true purpose is to ensure, that the date ring is always secured in the correct position.
The date immideatly advances at midnight, when the loaded date handle is unloaded.
A semi fast date correction by turning the hands forth and back is also possible.
At the selfwinding mechanism, the date mechanism is also a complete unit, which is added to the base caliber Zaria 2009.
|8 3/4''' (measured: 19,8mm)
|Number of jewels:
Glucydur anular balance
3 arms, russian
|Balance bearing / direction hairspring:
|yoke winding system
|Setting lever spring:
|Mentioning in literature (years):